The Red Panda
Eine bedrohte Tierart
The Red Panda, or “firefox,” is often referred to as the “lesser panda” in deference to the better-known giant panda. Others prefer “first panda” – Western scientists described it 50 years earlier, and gave pandas their name. Few people outside its native habitat have even heard of the red panda, let alone seen one.
The Two Sub-species of the Red Panda
The red panda has been previously classified in the families Procyonidae (raccoons) and Ursidae (bears), but recent research has placed it in its own family Ailuridae, in superfamily Musteloidea along with Mustelidae and Procyonidae. Two subspecies are recognized:
Ailurus fulgens fulgens: Found in Nepal, northeastern India (West Bengal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh), Bhutan, and part of China.
Ailurus fulgens styani (also known as a. f. refulgens): Only found in China (in the Hengduan Mountains in Sichuan and the East Nujiang River of Yunnan Province) and northern Myanmar.
The head and body length of red pandas averages 56 to 63 cm (22 to 25 in), and their tails about 37 to 47 cm (15 to 19 in).
Red pandas are generally solitary, but there are a couple of exceptions to the rule. First, young red pandas grow relatively slowly, so they develop extended associations with their mothers that last for over a year. Second, red pandas have short relationships during the annual breeding season.
In terms of their ranging patterns, red pandas behave much like larger carnivores. They tend to have overlapping home ranges in which the individuals rarely interact with each other. This may seem odd, since red pandas mostly eat bamboo. However, red pandas search for the most tender bamboo shoots and leaves, and these prime specimens may be patchily distributed — not unlike the prey of larger animals such as jungle cats. In effect, the red panda’s habits reduce overcrowding and overuse of shared resources.
The home ranges of female red pandas often measure about one square mile, while males can live in areas twice that size. Male home ranges frequently overlap with at least one female home range and sometimes expand during the breeding season. Because red pandas constantly need to conserve energy, they only cover 650 to 1,000 feet of their home ranges per day and about 25% of their home ranges per month.
Red pandas have several ways of marking their territories and home ranges. These include urine, secretions from anal glands, and scents from glands on the pads of their feet. They have also been known to use communal latrine sites to stake out territory and share information with others. In addition, red pandas often communicate using body language (such as head bobbing and tail arching) and a variety of noises (such as a threatening “huff-quack” and a warning whistle).
The red panda’s diet is very unusual for a mammal and consists mostly of bamboo. When the weather is warm enough, they also eat insects and fruit. Although the giant panda eats almost every part of the bamboo plant (except the roots), the red panda only eats the youngest, most tender shoots and leaves. In addition, the red panda chews the bamboo thoroughly, whereas the giant panda hardly chews at all. The red panda’s preference for bamboo is apparently an ancient adaptation, as indicated by fossils of similar animals that have been found in Eastern Europe and North America. These specimens date back to the Miocene (25 to 5 million years ago) and Pliocene (5 to 2 million years ago) periods, leading scientists to believe that bamboo and red panda-like animals have historically been found in many areas of the planet. It is likely that the range of the bamboo has increased and decreased with changes in global temperature and moisture, and fortunately for the red panda, bamboo still thrives in many parts of the southern Asia.
The red panda’s dietary specialization has an profound impact on the animal’s daily life. For one thing, bamboo is very high in indigestible fiber, making it extraordinarily difficult for red pandas to extract the nutrients that they need. Cows, horses, and other herbivorous mammals normally have very strong teeth and extra fermentation chambers in their guts. However, while red pandas have large teeth, their guts are not specialized to handle plant matter. In fact, red pandas only extract about one quarter of the nutrients from bamboo, and food passes through their digestive tract quite quickly. That means that many red pandas lose as much as 15 percent of their body weight during the winter, when their other preferred foods (such as insects) are not readily available.
To cope with the lack of food during the winter months, red pandas have evolved several ways of meeting their energy demands. For instance, red pandas can spend as much as 13 hours a day looking for and eating bamboo. They also have a very low metabolic rate (almost as low as sloths), and can slow their metabolism even further in colder temperatures. Finally, their thick fur covers their entire body, including the soles of their feet, allowing them to conserve their body heat.
Population & Protections
Protecting the red panda goes hand in hand with protecting its habitat. In the past, the dense root systems and undergrowth of Nepal’s forests could be relied upon to retain moisture and slow water runoff. Recently, however, logging and other forms of forest degradation have upset this balance and sent rich soil cascading down mountainsides with the annual monsoons. Many Nepalese people count on the red panda’s habitat for their survival, and this problem cannot disappear on its own. For example, Langtang National Park in Nepal is considered to be an important area for red pandas, but 30,000 people live near the park and depend on its resources. The reality is that these people are not opposed to change. Rather, they lack viable economic alternatives. By working directly with the people of the PIS Corridor, we aim to create a new system in which conserving the red panda’s prime habitat will actually benefit the surrounding communities.
The exact size of Asia’s red panda population is currently unknown, but zoos around the world have taken up the call preserve the species. More than 80 zoos currently have red pandas and almost all of them participate in a management program to ensure the survival of a viable zoo population. In North America, the red panda population management program is called the Red Panda Species Survival Program (SSP). The SSP keeps a studbook of all red pandas on the continent, determines which animals should be mated, and develops long-term research and management strategies for the species. Other management programs have been created in Japan, Europe, Australia, and China.
Red pandas have a long gestation period (roughly 135 days) for an animal that weighs only 11 pounds at maturity. They also have small litters, producing about two cubs on average.
Despite the amount of food that red pandas eat, they grow quite slowly, reaching adult size after 12 months. The young become sexually mature at 18 months.
As a result of these characteristics, red pandas have a slow rate of reproduction and have a great deal of difficulty recovering from population declines.
Habitat & Range
Red pandas have a large range that extends from western Nepal to northern Myanmar. The species also lives throughout mountainous areas of southwestern China (Yunnan, Sichuan and Xizang provinces) at elevations between 4,900 and 13,000 feet.
Red pandas only live in temperate forests in the foothills of the Himalayas. The temperature in this region is generally cool, and there is little annual variation. The southern slopes of the mountains trap the water from seasonal monsoons, supporting forests of firs, deciduous hardwoods, and rhododendrons. A bamboo understory grows in these forests and provides the bulk of the red panda’s diet. However, these swaths of bamboo are only found in narrow bands throughout the red panda’s range. Thus, although red pandas are distributed across thousands of miles of territory, they are restricted to these small, fragile areas because of their dependence on the bamboo plants.
Species: Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao)
20,000 – 50,000; total Central American population no more than 4000.
- m. macao: Costa Rica on Pacific slope; S Panama, on Azuero Peninsula and Isla Coiba, then scattered through N South America, east of Andes, from Rio Magdalena valley, Colombia to Guianas and south to E Ecuador, E Peru, E Bolivia and N Mato Grosso, Brazil.
A.m. cyanoptera: Oaxaca and S Tamaulipas, SE Mexico, scattered to NE Nicaragua.
The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) is found in lowland rainforest and savanna, in Mexico remote portions of humid forest, on the Pacific slope in Honduras, in Costa Rica deciduous and humid forest, Colombia in lowland rainforest and gallery forest and Venezuela in rainforest and savanna. Although the Scarlet Macaw is listed by IUCN as least concern there is evidence of a population decline in the wild. It is listed by CITES as Appendix I. The declines in this species' population are due to habitat loss and fragmentation (expected to lose 20-35% of habitat within its range over 40 years (Soares-Filho et al. 2006, Bird et al. 2011)), the wild bird trade and hunting for feathers and food.
- Exploitation for the former wild bird pet trade
- Habitat loss and fragmentation due to logging and agriculture
- Illegal trapping for in-country trade, food and feathers
The Scarlet Macaw is found in lowland rainforest and savanna, in Mexico remote portions of humid forest, on the Pacific slope in Honduras, in Costa Rica deciduous and humid forest, Colombia in lowland rainforest and gallery forest and Venezuela in rainforest and savanna. Birds are encountered in pairs, parties of 3-4 or flocks up to 30 individuals as they forage on fruits, fruits and nuts of various palms, and seeds, flowers and nectar.
Species: Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus)
Fewer than 1000 individuals.
A.a. ambiguus: Caribbean lowlands of E Honduras to NW Colombia.
A.a. guayaquilensis: W Ecuador, Esmeraldas; smaller numbers in the Cordillera de Chongon-Colonche, Guayas.
Once prevalent throughout the entire Caribbean, Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguus) populations have declined alarmingly in recent years due to poaching and deforestation, in particular the cutting of Mountain Almond trees. BirdLife International states that over the past 50 years global populations have been reduced by half. A census conducted in the Cordillera de Chongon Colonche and Esmeraldas Province in Ecuador in 2010 found only 8 birds, with the current population in all of Ecuador suspected to be 30-40 birds (E. Horstman in litt. 2012). Recent conservation efforts in Costa Rica have stabilized numbers with less than 300 birds and an estimated 25-35 breeding pairs remaining (PsittaScene Aug. 2011).
- Unsustainable exploitation for the wild bird trade
- Subspecies guayaquilensis reportedly shot as a crop-pest
- Conversion of forest to oil-palm and banana plantations, causing the loss of the large Mountain Almond
- Increased impact of logging, agriculture, illegal coca plantations, gold mining and hunting
- Illegal trapping for in-country trade, food and feathers
This macaw prefers lowland humid forest and also strongly deciduous forest; in Costa Rica lowland primary forest. It is found at altitudes to 600m (1968 ft) in Costa Rica and1000m (3280 ft) in Panama. Less gregarious than other large macaws, it is found in pairs and groups of 3-4 birds, foraging on fruits and flowers.